Bird Whistle English |
Passarinhos Portuguese |
A stop which imitates the warbling of birds. Most sources describe the construction of these stops as consisting of two or more small metal pipes whose ends are immersed in a vessel of water or light oil. Williams, however, writes:
The usual distinction is between small pipes twittering when the stop-knob admits wind to their miniature chest (Uccelli, Vogelgesang), stopped pipes a third apart and successively blown, thereby creating a cuckoo (Kuckuck), and small open pipes suspended in a metal dish of water, the pipes and dish of one construction (Nachtigall, Rossignol, Usignuolo - �nightingale�).
He also states the the Vogelgesang might be �a very high Zimbel or Flageolet (Adlung), repeating or only slightly varying in pitch from note to note�. Grove dates these stops from at least 1450. According to Williams, they were found mainly in the 16th and 17th centuries throughout Europe, and as late as the mid-19th century in some parts of Spain, Italy and southern Germany.See also Cuckoo.
No examples of Canary, Merula, Oiseau, or Rosignolo are known. Contributions welcome.
Avicinium 3 Ordini, Organo Eco (III); Chiesa di San Filippo, Firenze, Italy, Fabbri 1664. A mixture (4'-2'-1') which reportedly creates a sound like the whistle of birds.
Bird Whistle; Temple Theatre, Hammond, Indiana, USA; Wurlitzer (relocated).
Bird Whistle; Virginia Theater, Chapaign, Illinois, USA; Wurlitzer 1921.
Nachtigall; Musée des Augustins, Toulouse, France; Ahrend 1981.
Nachtigall; Opera House, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia; Sharp 1979.
Nightingale; First Presbyterian Church, Richmond, Virginia, USA; Andover 1994.
Pájaros; Parroquia de Santa Engracia, Uztarroz, Navarra, Spain; de Rueda 1738.
Pájaros; San Juan Bautista, Santoyo, Palencia, Spain; de la Rosa 1738.
Passarinhos; Braga Cathedral (Gospel side), Braga, Spain; Simón Fontanes 1737.
Rossignol, Brustwerk; Abbey Church, Schlaegl, Austria; Putz 1634.
Rossignol; St. Sulpice, Paris, France; Cavaillé-Coll 1862.
Uccelli, Organo di Risposta (II); Cattedrale di San Filippo, Firenze, Italy; Fabbri 1664. Five metal pipes with the ends immersed in a dish of water.
Usignolo, Manual I; residence, Mayen, Germany; Oberlinger 1985.
Vogelgesang; St. Jacobi, Lüdingworth, Germany; Wilde 1598, Schnitger 1682.
Vogelgesang, Solo; Shadyside Presbyterian Church, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA; Reuter 1995.
Vogelgeschrei; Marienkirche, Stralsund, Germany; Stellwagen 1659 (restored mid-1900's).
Original website compiled by Edward L. Stauff. For educational use only.|
Vogelgesang.html - Last updated 29 September 2007.