The Geigen, whose name comes from the German geige, meaning �violin�, is a common diapason/string hybrid. While its tone varies between builders, it is usually (and properly) more diapason than string. It blends well, and is often used as the 8' foundation in Swell divisions. It is most often found at 8' pitch, though 4' examples are not uncommon, and has also been made at 16' pitch. Groves dates the Geigen from around 1620 in central Germany. It was quite popular in the 19th century, and remains popular to this day. Most English Geigens of the 19th century were really Horn Diapasons. This stop is usually made of open cylindrical metal pipes, though it has also been made of wood; Audsley provides a drawing, reproduced here, of a wooden Geigen by Thomas Pendlebury. Audsley and Bonavia-Hunt insist that it never be slotted, lest its tone become horny. It is often fitted with harmonic bridges. Scales cited in the literature range from 4" to 5.5" at 8' CC, with a 1/4 to 2/7 mouth and a 1/4 to 1/3 cutup. Adlung and Locher, however, claim it to have a �very narrow� scale. Irwin claims that the name Violin Diapason denotes a different stop, being stringier than the Geigen. Skinner lists Geigen, Geigen Principal and Violin Diapason separately, but the descriptions he gives are compatible, though not identical. Locher lists Violino and Violina as synonyms for Violin Diapason. The names Viol Diapason, Viol Principal and Grand Viol are mentioned only by Audsley. There is an alternative meaning for Grand Viol.
Osiris contains 175 examples of Geigen Principal, 65 examples of Violin Diapason, 37 examples of Geigen Diapason, 31 examples of Geigen, 5 examples of Viol Principal, 3 examples each of Grand Viol and