Viol French, German
Viole French, German
Vitula Latin
Vidula Latin
Viula Provençal
Fiedel German
Vedele Dutch

Viol and Viole are generic names for string stops. The other names are synonyms given only by Wedgwood. While the tone of these stops varies considerably, most sources consider it to be of the Gamba class. According to Irwin, these stops may be imitative or unimitative, but Audsley maintains they are always unimitative. Adlung considers Viole to be a synonym for Viola, or a 4' Violdigamba. He also claims that the name Viol is sometimes used for the Offenflöte, and cites an example in the Marienkirche at Danzig (Gdansk, Poland) at 3' (2-2/3') pitch, but this is probably an anomaly.

Variants

Bass Viol
Celestina-Viol
Contre Viole
Cornet des Violes
Echo Viol
Echo Viol Mixture
Echo Viole Celeste
Grand Viol
Muted Viol
Muted Viol Mixture
Octave Viole
Quintviole
Viol Cornet
Viol Diapason
Viol Fifteenth
Viol Flute
Viol Mixture
Viol Octave
Viol Principal
Viol Quint
Viol Tierce
Viol Twelfth
Viole à Pavillon
Viole à Pavillon Céleste
Viole Céleste
Viole Conique
Viole d'Amour
Viole d'Orchestre
Viole d'Orchestre Céleste
Viole de Gambe
Viole Flute
Viole Sourdine
Violes Célestes
Violetta
Violette

Examples

Osiris contains a dozen examples of the unmodified name Viol, one each at 2' and 16', three at 4', and the rest at 8'. The name Viole is more common, with 38 examples at 8', 15 at 4', 4 at 16', and one each at 2' and 2-2/3'. The earliest known examples date from the late 1800's. No examples of the other names are known.

Bibliography

Adlung[1]: §172 Offenflöt, §204 Viola, §206 Violadigamba. Audsley[1]: Viol. Bonavia-Hunt[1]: Viol. Irwin[1]: Viol. Sumner[1]: Viol. Wedgwood[1]: Viol. Williams[1]: Glosary: Viola da Gamba.
 
Original website compiled by Edward L. Stauff. For educational use only.
Viol.html - Last updated 11 April 2003.
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